THE SOLAR MODULES
The right solar modules for a photovoltaic system
The ability to convert solar energy in a solar cell into usable energy using semiconductors has brought a huge change to the world. Photovoltaics has enabled us to say goodbye to energy generation from fossil fuels. You are welcome to get a professionally experienced partner like Heckert Solar at your side, if you want to switch to renewable energies in your private household or in your company and therefore take the responsible step towards the future – of course you will also save considerable energy costs.
What is the function of solar cells?
Solar modules are one of the most important components of a photovoltaic system. Depending on the size, a different number of solar cells is connected together in these. For a solar system, several solar modules are then interconnected to form strings – a larger number of strings then make up the entire solar generator.
Solar cells are semiconductor diodes in which the energy of solar radiation is converted into direct current. This can be explained physically by the photoelectric effect. Differently doped semiconductor layers are composed in the solar cells – at the transition between the two layers an electric field is formed, which separates the layers from each other and at the same time prevents a charge balance. At the same time, the boundary layer allows the current to flow exclusively in one and the same direction when the circuit is closed.
Which modules are available in the Solar Shop?
1. polycrystalline modules
Silicon is the semiconductor material for this type of solar cell. To manufacture the solar modules, it is melted, doped with boron atoms and then cast into larger blocks using various casting processes. The silicon can then solidify into ingots. These are then sawn into so-called wafers (disks) and finally provided with an anti-reflection layer. With such a manufacturing process the crystals can align themselves differently. Losses then occur at the individual crystal boundaries (grain boundaries). For this reason, the efficiency of polycrystalline solar modules can be described as lower than that of monocrystalline modules.
2. monocrystalline modules
These types of solar cells are also made of silicon. Here, however, another manufacturing process ensures that ingots are formed from a single crystal. The wafers are then sawn here as well. With monocrystalline solar cells there is no different crystal orientation, the core boundaries in the wafer are omitted and accordingly less losses occur. Thus, the efficiency of monocrystalline modules is higher.
What can certificates say about the quality of the modules?
Solar modules are tested and certified according to defined standards with regard to durability, safety and quality. The following standards are part of the testing:
IEC 61646 – Degradation of thin film modules
IEC 61215 – Degradation or ageing of crystalline solar modules
IEC 61730 – Design application classes and characteristics.
These standards are defined by IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) in Geneva. The corresponding tests in Germany are carried out by TÜV Rheinland, for example.
Solar modules from Heckert Solar – simple and problem-free assembly
Several solar cells are connected in a solar module. These are encapsulated so that they are protected from the effects of the weather, insulate the solar cells from the outside and ensure optimum heat dissipation. For this reason, a solar module consists of a frame that is covered with a film on the lower side and at the same time contains the embedding material for the cells (in most cases the plastic ethylene vinyl acetate). The modules are covered with a layer of glass. Normally a low-iron and permeable glass is used, which protects against loads such as snow in the same time.
The structure of the layer in the thin-film module therefore looks like this: substrate, then laminating foil and then glass cover. If the semiconductor material of the thin-film cells is immediately evaporated onto the glass, the glass cover, the laminate and then the glass back cover can also follow.
Solarmodul Made in Germany im Solar-Shop
Solar modules from Heckert Solar can be used anywhere where there is no corresponding power grid. Such a system is ideal for campers, motorhomes, yachts and sailboats. Of course, this is a suitable solution for remote areas on earth and sea. Heckert Solar modules are also used in telecommunication and traffic control systems as well as technical facilities for the grid-independent generation of electricity.
Solar modules from Heckert Solar have been designed in such a way that they can also withstand stronger climatic loads without any problems. The modules are particularly flexible, applicable and resistant – in addition, they also make maximum use of unfavourable lighting conditions to generate energy.
In order to ensure the performance and quality of Heckert Solar Modules, they are manufactured in Germany. This means that every product is tested and certified according to the strictest standards. After the solar modules have been completed, each individual product is tested and measured under the internationally recognised STC conditions and then registered with a unique and unchangeable serial number.